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Understanding the probabilistic perspective adopted by the Exein Machine Learning Engine when distinguishing valid behaviour from cyber-attacks.


This is the second part of a blog series about the Exein Machine Learning Engine (MLE). Read the first part here.

In this blog post we will go through the part of the Exein MLE that is responsible for testing the ability of a trained security model to detect real and simulated anomalies and avoid false positives before being deployed in production. We refer to this part of Exein as the MLE Scorer.

A Probabilistic Approach to IoT Security

From the beginning, we designed the Exein MLE to follow…

Why you should protect your firmware with Exein Core technology.

Infrastructures built on top of IoT and embedded devices are easily open to attacks, primarily because they were not designed with security in mind, and then because these devices are very exposed, attracting attackers’ attention.

In such an environment, the diversity of attacks, their complexity, and their number has increased, making a solution indispensable.

Embedded devices, unlike traditional computers, often lack update procedures and tools to protect them. And it is in this void that Exein core takes place.

Exein Core protects against known and unknown vulnerabilities by providing the…

Understanding the Machine Learning Engine that powers the Exein Core firmware security solution for IoT devices.


Traditional firmware security solutions have been looking for known attack patterns inside devices in order to secure them from external threats. While this approach can be effective at detecting and blocking known exploitations, it completely fails at protecting the device from yet to be discovered vulnerabilities.

On the contrary, the purpose of Exein Core is to protect embedded devices from both known and unknown vulnerabilities. Doing this with the use of handwritten rules as in traditional solutions would be simply impossible because there are…

Cos’è Exein?

Exein è un framework di cybersecurity, per firmware che opera come un anticorpo all’interno del dispositivo garantendo che i dispositivi nel mondo IoT/ SCADA/ ICS resistano ad attacchi al firmware di questi dispositivi. Un attacco al firmware di questi dispositivi porta conseguenze nel mondo fisico mettendo a rischio l’incolumità di persone e cose.

La startup italiana, unica in tutta Europa e fra le 5 al mondo, cerca di affrontare l’enorme minaccia alla sicurezza rappresentata dai dispositivi smart connessi e le vulnerabilità presenti nel loro firmware. Le piattaforme IoT e smart-connected sono ben protette e ottimizzate utilizzando gli standard…

Harvard architecture MCUs binary exploitation.

The Harvard architecture is a computer architecture with physically separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data. History of early mechanical computers used this kind of separation for convenience, and it was typical for that time, to have the program and data memory physically separated. Today Harvard architecture is less common, but there’s still some niche of usage. …


The firmware security software and middleware that can be injected like a vaccine in the hardware and aims to defend it from inside.

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